Like a phoenix rising out of its ashes, Colombia has transformed itself from its shady dark past to become one of the rising tourist destinations in South America. Colombia has it all from history, culture to nature. The cities and townships here each bespeak its own distinct allure. The capital Bogota is the third-highest capital city in the world, as it is situated in the Andes Range. The amount of well-preserved colonial cities here are in abundance such as Cartagena andVilla de Leyva. The most sought after pre-historic ruins can be found in Ciudad Perdida, Tierradentro Archaeological Park and San Augustin. For a wild whirlwind cultural experience, Barranquilla is where the second largest Carnival in the world takes place (after Rio). The Colombian terrain is impressively diverse encompassing Amazon rainforest, Andean mountains, tropical grassland as well as Caribbean and Pacific coastlines. It is the only country in South America with both these coastlines. The climate is also diverse as it can be chilly, reaching temperatures below 0 Celsius high up in the mountains by Bogota or hot and humid in the Caribbean coastal cities such as Santa Marta.